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  • Philemon 1:8-9
  • Psalms 71:9, 15, 5

Older people are vital and useful.

  • Psalms 92:12-15
  • Luke 1:36; 2:36-38
  • Leviticus 19:32
  • Titus 2:2-3
  • God has work for older people to do!
  • I Timothy 3:6
  • What would Benchley be like without older people?

Older people are still fighting the devil.

  • I Timothy 5:1-2
  • II Chronicles 26:3, 16
  • Different temptations can arise in old age.
  • Philippians 3:17

We should honor older people.

  • Proverbs 20:29
  • I Timothy 5:3, 9-10
  • Ecclesiastes 12:1-5 – The effects of old age.
  • II Corinthians 4:16

For further study, see also:

Questions or comments? Join our Discord server for further study.

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One objection to the Exodus

  • Could not have happened
    • Describes Moses as having written Exodus accounts (Exodus 34:27; et al)
    • Describes the Law written by God’s own finger (Exodus 31:18)
    • Archaeologists and historians denied existence of written Hebrew language that early

Written communication

  • Three main types of written communications:
    • Syllabary – language dependent, symbols expressing sounds
    • Pictograms – symbols independent of language, depict things, ideas
    • Alphabets – language dependent, make sounds of the language
  • Dr. Miles R. Jones, former professor of education at Texas A&M University) – The Writing of God
    • Purports that written ancient Hebrew is the first alphabet in history


  • Sound from combinations of consonant and vowel
    • Ca, Ce, Ci, Co, Cu
    • Da, De, Di, Do, Du, etc.
  • Cuneiform was a type of syllabary
  • Syllabary requires about 200 symbols
  • Communication is language dependent
  • Neither writing nor pictures, but symbols
    • Made with stylus
    • Makes wedged imprints on clay
    • Not carved in stone
    • Cumbersome in writing and preserving


  • Symbols express things, ideas, or states of being
  • Not language dependent
  • Requires huge number of symbols
  • Dynamic lexicon


  • Type of pictogram
  • Symbols of things and ideas
  • Borrowed by Hebrews
    • Hebrews borrowed symbols to depict sounds in Hebrew language
      • Took symbols for items beginning with a sound
      • Used that symbol to express that sound
    • When did they do this?
      • Some time in the 2nd millennium B.C.
    • When did Joseph’s family come to Egypt?
      • Early in the 2nd millennium B.C. – approximately 1850 B.C.

“A” is for cow

  • In Hebrew, Aleph means Cattle or Oxen
    • Hieroglyph is a cow’s head
    • Symbol of cow’s head used for the “A” sound
    • Symbol evolved into a sideways “A”
  • The Hebrews took 22 symbols from Egyptian hieroglyphs
    • One for each of the sounds in the Hebrew language
    • The symbols were for the sounds, not the things or ideas
    • Established a 22-letter alphabet
    • By the Exodus, the symbol for cow had morphed into a sideways “A”

Hebrew experience with writing

  • Abraham – cuneiform
  • Joseph – cuneiform, hieroglyphics
  • Moses – cuneiform, hieroglyphics, alphabet

The term “alphabet”

  • Taken from the first two letters
  • Greek?
  • Hebrew?
  • You decide

Archaeological evidence

  • El Arish inscription
    • Dates from 325 B.C.
    • Problem?
  • Ipuwer papyrus
  • Mernepta Stele
    • Presence of Israelites
    • When?
  • Four-room houses
    • Typical of Hebrew houses
    • Found in both Egypt (pre-1440 B.C.)
    • And in Canaan (post-1500 B.C.)

Effect of archaeology

  • Can’t probe the Exodus
  • Much of it puzzle pieces
  • Wide range of interpretations
  • Will always be a matter of faith

Where was Mount Horeb?

  • Also called Mount Sinai
  • Traditional – Sinai Peninsula
  • Bible – Midian – Exodus 3:1, 12

For further study, see also:

Questions or comments? Join our Discord server for further study.

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  • James 2:21-23 – Abraham was called a friend of God.
  • Abraham was justified by an active faith – his works. Works here are works of obedience – not works that earn one salvation.


  • Hebrews 11
    • Nouns (faith, belief)
    • Verbs (prepared, offered, etc.)
  • I John
    • Walking, confessing, keeping, loving, abiding, practicing, guarding, purifying
    • If we say we have faith in God, we prove it by what we do!
  • James 2
    • “Faith was completed by his works.”
  • Chronology of God’s promises to Abraham
    • Genesis 12:1-3 – 75 years old when promised a seed/offering
    • Genesis 16:15-16 – 86 years old when Ishmael (not the promised offspring) is born
    • Genesis 17:1-19 – 99 years old when he and Sarah would have a son named Isaac
    • Genesis 18:9-14 – 99 years old – in one year Sarah to give birth to Isaac
    • Genesis 21:1-5 – 100 years old when the promised son Isaac is born
    • Genesis 22:1-2 – Age unknown – God tells Abraham to offer Isaac.
  • Did Abraham actually sacrifice Isaac?
  • James 2:21
  • God got the sacrifice He wanted: He wanted Abraham.

Abraham the friend of God sacrificed his logic

  • II Kings 5:9-12 – Naaman didn’t think Elisha’s instructions made any sense!
  • Baptism may not make sense to us from a human standpoint.

Abraham the friend of God sacrificed his emotions

  • Matthew 10:34-38

Abraham the friend of God sacrificed his will

  • Matthew 16:24 – We must deny ourselves.

For further study, see also:

Questions or comments? Join our Discord server for further study.

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I Corinthians 15, continued:

  • I Corinthians 15:29-32 – If the dead are not raised, continued
    • I Corinthians 15:29
      • “For the dead” might mean “for the purpose of refilling the ranks of our fallen brethren.”
      • Paul might be illustrating his point by referring to an erroneous practice.
      • Whatever explanation is correct, Paul’s point in this section of scripture is easy to understand: the coming resurrection is a fact. We also know what it doesn’t mean – that we can be baptized for the benefit of people who are dead.
  • I Corinthians 15:35-58 – Details of the resurrection
    • I Corinthians 15:42-44
      • See I John 3:2. We don’t know what our spiritual bodies will be like, but in some way we will be like God.
Sown Raised
Perishable Imperishable
Dishonor Glory
Weakness Power
Natural Spiritual
  • I Corinthians 15:45-49
The first Adam The last Adam
Became a living person Spiritual
Natural From heaven
From the earth We will also bear the image of the heavenly
  • I Corinthians 15:50 – We put a lot of effort into maintaining our physical bodies, but they can’t take us where we really want to go – heaven! We need a spiritual body for that.

For further study, see also:

Questions or comments? Join our Discord server for further study.

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