By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 19, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • Galilee
    • Samaritans
    • Temples
      • Gerizim
      • Elephantine
      • Heliopolis
    • End of rule for John Hyrcanus
    • Treacheries of Aristobulus
  • This lesson
    • Results of Aristobulus’ rule
    • Profane rule of Jannaeus
    • Last of the Hasmoneans
    • First of the Herodians
  • John Hyrcanus designates wife as heir
    • As ruler, not as priest
    • He dies in 104 BC
    • Son (Aristobulus) imprisons her and 3 brothers
  • Aristobulus now rules
    • Declares himself as both priest and king
    • Conquers the rest of Galilee and Iturea
    • Dies of illness after one year
  • Wife of Aristobulus nicer than husband
  • Jannaeus now high priest and king
    • Marries brother’s widow, Alexandra
      • Deuteronomy 25:5
      • Matthew 22:23-33
    • Spent younger years in Galilee
    • Vigorous military campaigns
      • Gained much territory
      • Lost same within several years
    • Persecuted Pharisees
    • Mocked the feasts
  • Civil war
    • Pharisees vs Sadducees, Hasmoneans
    • 50,000 killed in six years
    • Pharisees appeal to Seleucids for help
      • Eventually dump foreign tyrants for native tyrant
      • Jannaeus dies in 76 BC
      • Queen Salome Alexandra takes throne
  • Queen Alexandra
    • Establishes Sanhedrin
      • Rabbinical council
      • Religious legislative powers
      • Judicial authority
    • Strengthens Judean army
    • Appoints son, John Hyrcanus II, as high priest
    • She dies in 67 BC
    • Son takes throne
  • John Hyrcanus II takes the throne
    • Aristobulus II goes to war
      • “Fight” at Jericho
      • Siege at Jerusalem
      • Hyrcanus surrenders with terms
    • Antipater the Idumean
      • Well-heeled noble from Idumea
      • Skilled politician and diplomat
    • Veteran governor of Idumea under Hasmoneans
    • Sees Hyrcanus as weak and pliable
  • Plots to replace Aristobulus
    • Places Hyrcanus with Nabateans
    • Makes promises for support
  • Siege of Jerusalem
    • Nabateans take 50,000 troops
    • They commit two serious offenses
  • Race for Roman support
    • General Scaurus is completing conquest in Syria
    • Both brothers try to bribe him
    • Initial call is in favor of Aristobulus
  • Pompey comes to town
    • More bribes
    • Pompey ignores bribes
    • Considers annexation of Judea instead
  • Caesar and Pompey contend for rule
    • Caesar wins, Antipater supports him
    • Antipater appointed governor of Judea
    • Hyrcanus appointed high priest, tetrarch
  • Coming weeks
    • Herodian Dynasty
    • Role of women in Jewish society
    • Social strata of Jerusalem
    • Religious sects
    • Purification
    • Laws of the Sabbath

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 12, 2017

  • Last lesson:
    • Simon
    • John Hyrcanus
    • Expansion of Judea
    • Doctrine of proselytizing
  • Effects of expansion
    • Observance of law vs. proselytizing
    • Hellenized cities vs. Easternized
    • Idumea
      • Mass forced conversion
      • Defections
      • Conversion not necessarily assimilation
    • Galilee
      • Hick town north of Samaria
      • Barriers to interaction
  • Who were the Samaritans?
    • Occupiers of northern kingdom of Israel
      • Other nations that had been deported
      • Deported yet again – to Samaria ~ 700 BC
    • Perplexed at problems
      • Attacked by wild animals
      • Wanted to appease “god of this land”
  • The fix
    • Assyrian king sends a priest
      • Good choice?
      • Did he teach them well?
    • Initial results
      • “Feared God”
      • Kept high places
      • Jehovah treated as just another god
  • Samaria often refuge for renegades
    • Priest named Manasseh (409 BC – Nehemiah 13:28)
    • Builds temple
  • Samaritans begin abandoning other gods
  • Doctor scripture to reflect their “reality”
  • Progress of Samaritan “Jewishness”
  • Destruction of temple at Mt. Gerizim
  • Continued use of Mt. Gerizim
  • Speaking of temples
    • Temple at Elephantine
    • Temple at Heliopolis
  • Justification
    • Isaiah 19:19
    • Does this work?
    • Highlights problems of interpretation
  • What happened to them?
  • John Hyrcanus designates wife as heir
    • As ruler, not as priest
    • He dies in 104, son imprisons her
  • Aristobulus now rules
    • Declares himself as both priest and king
    • Conquers the rest of Galilee and Iturea
    • Imprisons his three brothers
    • Dies of illness after one year
  • Wife of Aristobulus nicer than husband
  • Jannaeus now high priest and king
    • Marries brother’s widow, Alexandra
    • Spent younger years in Galilee
    • Vigorous military campaigns
      • Gained much territory
      • Lost same within several years
    • Persecuted Pharisees
    • Mocked the feasts
  • Civil war
    • Pharisees vs. Sadducees, Hasmoneans
    • 50,000 killed in six years
    • Pharisees appeal to Seleucids for help
      • Jannaeus dies in 76 BC
      • Queen Salome Alexandra takes throne
      • She sides with Pharisees
      • Pharisees dump foreign tyrants for native tyrant
  • Queen Alexandra
    • Establishes Sanhedrin
      • Rabbinical council
      • Religious legislative powers
      • Judicial authority
    • Strengthens Judean army
    • Appoints son, John Hurcanus II, as high priest
    • She dies in 67 BC
    • Son takes throne
  • Coming weeks
    • Fall of Hasmonean Dynasty
    • Roman intrigue, dominance
    • Beginning of the Herodian Dynasty
    • The role of women in Jewish society
    • The social strata of Jerusalem
    • Unclean, unwhole
    • The Sabbath and its laws
  • Homework!
    • Read:
      • Matthew 2:1-22
      • Mark 3:6
      • Luke 3:1, 19-20; 8:1-2; 9:1-9; 13:31-32; 23:6-12
      • Mark 6:7-29; 8:15; 12:13
      • Acts 12:1-23

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 5, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • Men of action: the Maccabees
      • Revolt against Menelaus
      • Revolt against Seleucids
      • Purification and rededication of the temple
      • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
  • This lesson
    • More on the Hasmonean Dynasty
      • Expansion of Judea
      • Doctrine of proselytizing
      • Position of Galilee
      • John Hyrcanus
      • Aristobulus
      • Jannaeus
      • Civil war
  • Hasmonean Dynasty established
    • Irony of change in philosophy
    • Outcropping of “schisms”
    • Motivation of priestly service corrupted – again
  • Simon ratified as high priest
    • Not a foreign appointment
    • Onias III, IV, etc.
    • Priests and elders agree
    • Hasmonean Dynasty begins in 140 BC
  • Hasmonean embassy in Rome – 159 BC
  • New king in Antioch – 158 BC
    • Demands Judea return to original borders
    • Simon refuses
    • Another war
  • Seleucid-instigated coup attempt
    • Simon and two sons assassinated
    • Third son (John Hyrcanus) escapes
  • John Hyrcanus new high priest
    • Offers troops to Antiochus VII
    • Antiochus VII besieges Jerusalem
    • Imposes new status on Judea
    • Antiochus VII killed in battle vs Parthians
  • Balance of John Hyrcanus’ rule
    • Seleucid empire in disarray
      • Multiple attempts at taking throne
      • All anti-Jewish actions interrupted
      • Empire shrinks
    • Judea again widens its borders
  • Effects of expansion
    • Observance of law vs proselytizing
      • Exodus 12:48
      • Leviticus 24:22
      • Isaiah 2:1-4; Micah 4:1-3 – Some thought these prophecies meant they should go out and make Jews of the people that were brought into Judea. Proselytizing was not permitted under the Old Law. These verses were talking about the coming of Jesus.
      • Acts 2:8-12
      • Acts 8:27 – The Ethiopian eunuch was probably a proselyte.
      • Matthew 23:15
    • Hellenized cities vs Easternized
    • Idumea
      • Mass forced conversion
      • Defections
      • Conversion not necessarily assimilation

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 21, 2017

  • Last lesson: rule of the Seleucids
    • Who was Antiochus IV?
    • Meddling with the priesthood
    • Ambition in Egypt
    • Roman intervention
    • Zadokite revolt – Ezekiel 44:15; 40:46; 43:19; 48:19
    • Antiochus’ revenge
    • Abomination of desolation
  • This lesson
    • Men of action: the Maccabees
    • Revolt against Menelaus
    • Revolt against Seleucids
    • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
    • Purification and rededication of the temple
    • Enter Rome
    • Herodian Dynasty emerges
  • Taking action: Mattathias
    • Daniel 11:28
    • Priestly descent
    • “New order” spreads to villages
    • Ordered by Seleucid officer to sacrifice to Jupiter
    • By actions, started a revolt
    • Became known as Maccabees – “Hammer”
  • Judas begins guerilla campaign
    • Light, maneuverable
    • Use of terrain to advantage
  • Antiochus fails to take seriously
    • Sends “practice” generals to get experience
    • Users better generals on major campaigns
  • Maccabees regain Jerusalem 165 BC
  • Purified and rededicated temple
    • Not enough kosher oil for menorah
      • Leviticus 24:1
    • Single day’s vial said to have lasted nine days
  • Hasmonean woes not over
    • Antiochus IV dies in Parthia in 164 BC
    • Demetrius (rightful heir) hostage in Rome
    • Antiochus V Eupator takes throne at age 9
  • Maccabeans allow Menelaus to stay
    • Continues as high priest
    • Runs temple, Judea, and collects taxes for Syria
  • Lysias rules Syria for Antiochus V
    • Returns to Jerusalem in 163 BC
    • Executes Menelaus
    • Appoints Alcimus as high priest
    • Learns of trouble in Antioch
  • Lysias makes hasty treaty
    • Grants status under Antiochus III
    • Immediately violates terms of treaty
  • Judas Maccabees consolidates gains
    • Institutes internal reforms
    • Makes alliance with Rome
    • Tried to remove Alcimus from high priesthood
  • Lysias returns
    • Judah and John killed in battles in 160 BC
    • Jonathon takes command of Hasmoneans
    • Alcimus still high priest
  • Demetrius escapes Rome
    • Accepted in Antioch as true king
    • Has Antiochus V and Lysias executed
    • Does not replace Alcimus when he dies in 159
  • New general in town
    • Bacchides replaces Lysias
    • Remembers previous three generals
    • Makes treaty with Jonathon
  • Jonathon appointed high priest – 153 BC
  • Enter Alexander Balas
    • Claimed to be heir to the throne
    • Jonathon allied with him
    • Alexander Balas wins
  • Hasmonean expansion
    • Edom
    • Samaria
    • Moab
    • Galilee
  • Trouble in Antioch
    • Battle for throne
    • Impact on Judea

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 14, 2017

  • Review
    • Influence of the Persians
      • Exile to Alexander
      • Peace to minor persecution
    • Alexander’s conquest
      • Peaceful transition in Judea
      • Jewish influence on Alexander’s empire
    • Egyptian (Ptolemean) rule
      • Harsh to peaceful
      • Promotion of Jewish talents
      • Movements of Jews through empire
    • This lesson: rule of the Seleucids
      • Who was Antiochus IV?
      • Meddling with the priesthood
      • Ambition in Egypt
      • Roman intervention
      • Zadokite revolt
      • Antiochus’ revenge
      • Abomination of desolation
    • Seleucid takeover
      • Started in 204 BC
      • Peaceful at first
      • Changed under Antiochus Epiphanes
        • Serious persecution of the Jews
        • Defiled the temple
        • Forced Hellenization
        • Sets up the revolt
    • Antiochus Epiphanes (Antiochus IV)
      • “Epiphanes” translates “visible god”
      • Usurped the throne (178-164 BC)
        • Murdered his nephew, the rightful heir to the throne
    • Antiochus assumes throne
      • Begins his mission
      • Makes deals within the high priesthood
    • Co-opting the priesthood
      • Onias to Jason (174 BC)
      • Jason to Menelaus
      • The physical price
        • Some gold of the temple sold off to pay the bribe
    • Antiochus moves on Egypt
      • Takes all but Alexandria
      • Takes Cypress
      • Revisits two years later – 168 BC
        • Roman interference
        • Jason takes back Jerusalem
        • Antiochus returns to Damascus via Jerusalem
    • Antiochus accelerates Hellenization
      • All Jewish religious activity forbidden
        • Observances punishable by death
        • Menelaus reinstated as high priest
          • Wants the right to collect taxes. Was not concerned about Jewish laws or serving God.
          • Put to death those who broke the anti-religious laws he put in effect.
          • Sold people into slavery who could not pay taxes.
        • Desecrates temple
          • Constructed gymnasium (participants required to be nude, all people required to visit at least once)
          • Built statue to Zeus and sacrificed pigs
    • Nation divided
      • Hellenized Jews
        • Now in charge
        • Enforce new rules
      • Faithful Jews
        • Flee to the hills, caves
        • Carry on in the faith
    • Jerusalem in 168 BC
      • No more temple worship for the faithful
      • Newborn males no longer presented there
      • Passover not kept
      • Sabbath is disregarded
    • Jesus and John
      • What would calls to repent involve?
        • Daniel 11:28-32
    • Next lesson:
      • Men of action: the Maccabees
        • Revolt against Menelaus
        • Revolt against Seleucids
        • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
        • Purification and rededication of the temple
      • Enter Rome
      • Herodian Dynasty emerges

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 7, 2017

  • FOCUS ON THE FIRST CENTURY
  • HISTORY, SOCIETY, RELIGION
  • OVERVIEW
    • External Influences from History
      • Persians and Greeks and Romans, Oh No!
      • Ptolomeans, Seleucids, and Idumaeans, Too!
    • Maccabean Revolt
      • Hasmonean Dynasty
      • High Priesthood and the Temple(s)
      • Herodian Dynasty
    • FIRST CENTURY FOCUS
    • Jewish Society
      • Politics
      • Religious Sects, Beliefs, and Worship
      • Views of the Messiah
      • Role of Women
      • The Diaspora
    • Some Examples of Cultural Understanding
      • Samaritans
      • Tax Collectors
      • Women
      • Gentiles
      • Religious Sects
      • Many Etceteras
    • WHY?
      • Appreciation
      • Understanding
      • Impact
    • EXTERNAL INFLUENCES FROM HISTORY
      • Main External Influences
        • Persian Influence
        • Greek Influence
        • Roman Influence
      • Timeline From Captivity to Greek Conquest
    • A NOTE ABOUT ZOROASTRIANISM
    • Nature of Zoroastrianism
      • Dating Zarathustra
        • Authenticating Zarathustra
        • Chicken or Egg Problem for Anthropologists
        • Swings on Dates
      • Similarities Die with Most “Ancient” Manuscripts
      • Manuscripts Differ Widely and According to Tradition
      • Conclusion
    • PERSIAN STRENGTH
      • Cyrus Defeats Babylon – 539 BC
      • Sends Jews to Rebuild Temple – 538 BC
      • More Return With Ezra – 457 BC
      • Judea Enjoys Peace Under Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes
      • Artaxerxes III Heavy Handedness
    • FINAL PROPHETIC WRITINGS ABOUT 415 BC
      • Malachi is Last Written Prophet
      • Greek Culture and Influence on the Rise
    • SPARTA AND PERSIA (386 BC)
      • Peace Between Sparta and Persia
      • Sparta Forces Other Greek States to Follow
      • Sparta and the Athenian League
      • Make Peace Among the Greek City States (371 BC)
      • Now Free to Spread Stronger Influence
    • PHILLIP OF MACEDONIA
      • Takes the Throne (359-336 BC)
      • Makes War Against the Greek City States
    • ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • Phillip’s Son Takes the Throne (336-323 BC)
      • Continues His Father’s Quest
      • Conquers as Far as India
      • Conquered Persia (Incl Palestine) 331 BC
    • ALEXANDER AND JUDEA
      • Josephus Antiquities, XI
      • Daniel 8:20-22
      • Friendliness to Jews as Result
    • DEATH OF ALEXANDER 323 BC
      • Kingdom Splits
      • Period of Peace
    • THE INHERITANTS RULE
      • Four Horns of Daniel 8:20-22
      • Ptolemy Soter, Lysimachus, Cassander, and Selenus
    • PTOLEMEAN RULE – 323 to 204 BC
      • Empire Centered in Egypt
      • Soter Goes Harsh to Kind
      • Philadelphus Follows Suit
        • Extensive Public Works
        • Many Jews Work in his Administrative Offices and Armies
        • OT Translated into Greek – Septuagint
      • Philopater’s Approach to the Temple
      • Persecution of the Jews
      • Succession of Epiphanes, subsequent defeat
    • NEXT WEEK
      • Rule of the Seleucids
      • Maccabean Revolt
      • Effect on Priesthood
      • Effect on Governance
      • Hasmonean Dynasty
      • Roman Annexation
      • Herodian Dynasty
    • Homework – Edom
      • Genesis 32-33
      • Numbers 20:14-21
      • Deuteronomy 2
      • 1 Samuel 14:47
      • 2 Samuel 8:1-14
      • 1 Kings 9:26
      • 2 Kings 14:1-7
      • 2 Chronicles 20:1-23; 25:14-28
      • Isaiah 34:5-8; 63:1-6
      • Jeremiah 49:7-22

Myth, Legend, and History

Posted by mark under Sermons

By Adam Wallace

Benchley, September 23, 2012

 

  • Shang Di – Tian
  • Myth
    • Unknown origin but proposing actual events at unspecified time
    • Told around extraordinary events – could not actually happen
  • Legend
    • Perceived by teller and listener as true
    • No happenings outside the realm of possibility
    • George Washington chopping down the cherry tree
  • History
    • Study of chronological events
  • Sima Qian – 25 A.D.
    • Huang Di (2400 B.C.)
    • Altar of heaven
    • Tai Shi Shandong province
    • Debate on dates – after flood (2450 B.C.), after tower of Babel
    • Site moved when capital moved
  • Altar of heaven
    • No images of Shang Di – Tian
    • Altat to make sacrifices on
    • After Solomon’s Temple built – II Chronicles 6:18
    • Confucius – “The ceremonies of the celestial and terrestrial sacrifices are those by which men serve Shang Di.”
  • Border sacrifice
    • Performed by the emporer of China
    • Called Border Sacrifice because it usually took place on the southern border of the imperial city
    • Ji Tian – Ceremony of Sacrifice to Heaven
    • Not all emperors faithful in the three yearly sacrfices that were expected
    • Vol. 25 – History of Han Dynasty
    • Corruption from 259 B.C. – A.D. 1368
    • False gods abolished
  • Border sacrifice – ceremony
    • Emperor – three times a year
    • Spring – harvest
    • Summer – rain
    • Winter solstice – to sacrifice to Heaven
  • Preparation for ceremonies
    • 3 months before – unblemished sacrifice selected
    • Emperor put a proclamation
    • 5 days before – prince inspection of sacrifice
    • 3 days before – fast: no wine, mean, women, or entertainment
    • 2 days before – inspect writings, incense
    • 10:00 a.m. day before sacrifice: procession to the altar
      • Emperor and as many as 5000 people
  • Inside the complex
    • Emperor – Imperial vault
    • Kneel, kowtow 9 times
    • Inspect sacrifice, then return and bathe
  • Day of sacrifice
    • 4:15 a.m.
    • Emperor put on robes of “bo” silk.
    • Wash face and hands in basin.
    • 9 stage ceremony ending in burnt offering
  • Conclusion
    • God has strict requirements.
    • God wants a pure heart.
    • God requires a perfect sacrifice.
    • Jesus’ sacrifice ended sacrifice at the temple in Jerusalem or at any other Altar of Heaven.