By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 14, 2017

  • Review
    • Influence of the Persians
      • Exile to Alexander
      • Peace to minor persecution
    • Alexander’s conquest
      • Peaceful transition in Judea
      • Jewish influence on Alexander’s empire
    • Egyptian (Ptolemean) rule
      • Harsh to peaceful
      • Promotion of Jewish talents
      • Movements of Jews through empire
    • This lesson: rule of the Seleucids
      • Who was Antiochus IV?
      • Meddling with the priesthood
      • Ambition in Egypt
      • Roman intervention
      • Zadokite revolt
      • Antiochus’ revenge
      • Abomination of desolation
    • Seleucid takeover
      • Started in 204 BC
      • Peaceful at first
      • Changed under Antiochus Epiphanes
        • Serious persecution of the Jews
        • Defiled the temple
        • Forced Hellenization
        • Sets up the revolt
    • Antiochus Epiphanes (Antiochus IV)
      • “Epiphanes” translates “visible god”
      • Usurped the throne (178-164 BC)
        • Murdered his nephew, the rightful heir to the throne
    • Antiochus assumes throne
      • Begins his mission
      • Makes deals within the high priesthood
    • Co-opting the priesthood
      • Onias to Jason (174 BC)
      • Jason to Menelaus
      • The physical price
        • Some gold of the temple sold off to pay the bribe
    • Antiochus moves on Egypt
      • Takes all but Alexandria
      • Takes Cypress
      • Revisits two years later – 168 BC
        • Roman interference
        • Jason takes back Jerusalem
        • Antiochus returns to Damascus via Jerusalem
    • Antiochus accelerates Hellenization
      • All Jewish religious activity forbidden
        • Observances punishable by death
        • Menelaus reinstated as high priest
          • Wants the right to collect taxes. Was not concerned about Jewish laws or serving God.
          • Put to death those who broke the anti-religious laws he put in effect.
          • Sold people into slavery who could not pay taxes.
        • Desecrates temple
          • Constructed gymnasium (participants required to be nude, all people required to visit at least once)
          • Built statue to Zeus and sacrificed pigs
    • Nation divided
      • Hellenized Jews
        • Now in charge
        • Enforce new rules
      • Faithful Jews
        • Flee to the hills, caves
        • Carry on in the faith
    • Jerusalem in 168 BC
      • No more temple worship for the faithful
      • Newborn males no longer presented there
      • Passover not kept
      • Sabbath is disregarded
    • Jesus and John
      • What would calls to repent involve?
        • Daniel 11:28-32
    • Next lesson:
      • Men of action: the Maccabees
        • Revolt against Menelaus
        • Revolt against Seleucids
        • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
        • Purification and rededication of the temple
      • Enter Rome
      • Herodian Dynasty emerges

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 7, 2017

  • FOCUS ON THE FIRST CENTURY
  • HISTORY, SOCIETY, RELIGION
  • OVERVIEW
    • External Influences from History
      • Persians and Greeks and Romans, Oh No!
      • Ptolomeans, Seleucids, and Idumaeans, Too!
    • Maccabean Revolt
      • Hasmonean Dynasty
      • High Priesthood and the Temple(s)
      • Herodian Dynasty
    • FIRST CENTURY FOCUS
    • Jewish Society
      • Politics
      • Religious Sects, Beliefs, and Worship
      • Views of the Messiah
      • Role of Women
      • The Diaspora
    • Some Examples of Cultural Understanding
      • Samaritans
      • Tax Collectors
      • Women
      • Gentiles
      • Religious Sects
      • Many Etceteras
    • WHY?
      • Appreciation
      • Understanding
      • Impact
    • EXTERNAL INFLUENCES FROM HISTORY
      • Main External Influences
        • Persian Influence
        • Greek Influence
        • Roman Influence
      • Timeline From Captivity to Greek Conquest
    • A NOTE ABOUT ZOROASTRIANISM
    • Nature of Zoroastrianism
      • Dating Zarathustra
        • Authenticating Zarathustra
        • Chicken or Egg Problem for Anthropologists
        • Swings on Dates
      • Similarities Die with Most “Ancient” Manuscripts
      • Manuscripts Differ Widely and According to Tradition
      • Conclusion
    • PERSIAN STRENGTH
      • Cyrus Defeats Babylon – 539 BC
      • Sends Jews to Rebuild Temple – 538 BC
      • More Return With Ezra – 457 BC
      • Judea Enjoys Peace Under Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes
      • Artaxerxes III Heavy Handedness
    • FINAL PROPHETIC WRITINGS ABOUT 415 BC
      • Malachi is Last Written Prophet
      • Greek Culture and Influence on the Rise
    • SPARTA AND PERSIA (386 BC)
      • Peace Between Sparta and Persia
      • Sparta Forces Other Greek States to Follow
      • Sparta and the Athenian League
      • Make Peace Among the Greek City States (371 BC)
      • Now Free to Spread Stronger Influence
    • PHILLIP OF MACEDONIA
      • Takes the Throne (359-336 BC)
      • Makes War Against the Greek City States
    • ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • Phillip’s Son Takes the Throne (336-323 BC)
      • Continues His Father’s Quest
      • Conquers as Far as India
      • Conquered Persia (Incl Palestine) 331 BC
    • ALEXANDER AND JUDEA
      • Josephus Antiquities, XI
      • Daniel 8:20-22
      • Friendliness to Jews as Result
    • DEATH OF ALEXANDER 323 BC
      • Kingdom Splits
      • Period of Peace
    • THE INHERITANTS RULE
      • Four Horns of Daniel 8:20-22
      • Ptolemy Soter, Lysimachus, Cassander, and Selenus
    • PTOLEMEAN RULE – 323 to 204 BC
      • Empire Centered in Egypt
      • Soter Goes Harsh to Kind
      • Philadelphus Follows Suit
        • Extensive Public Works
        • Many Jews Work in his Administrative Offices and Armies
        • OT Translated into Greek – Septuagint
      • Philopater’s Approach to the Temple
      • Persecution of the Jews
      • Succession of Epiphanes, subsequent defeat
    • NEXT WEEK
      • Rule of the Seleucids
      • Maccabean Revolt
      • Effect on Priesthood
      • Effect on Governance
      • Hasmonean Dynasty
      • Roman Annexation
      • Herodian Dynasty
    • Homework – Edom
      • Genesis 32-33
      • Numbers 20:14-21
      • Deuteronomy 2
      • 1 Samuel 14:47
      • 2 Samuel 8:1-14
      • 1 Kings 9:26
      • 2 Kings 14:1-7
      • 2 Chronicles 20:1-23; 25:14-28
      • Isaiah 34:5-8; 63:1-6
      • Jeremiah 49:7-22

Myth, Legend, and History

Posted by mark under Sermons

By Adam Wallace

Benchley, September 23, 2012

 

  • Shang Di – Tian
  • Myth
    • Unknown origin but proposing actual events at unspecified time
    • Told around extraordinary events – could not actually happen
  • Legend
    • Perceived by teller and listener as true
    • No happenings outside the realm of possibility
    • George Washington chopping down the cherry tree
  • History
    • Study of chronological events
  • Sima Qian – 25 A.D.
    • Huang Di (2400 B.C.)
    • Altar of heaven
    • Tai Shi Shandong province
    • Debate on dates – after flood (2450 B.C.), after tower of Babel
    • Site moved when capital moved
  • Altar of heaven
    • No images of Shang Di – Tian
    • Altat to make sacrifices on
    • After Solomon’s Temple built – II Chronicles 6:18
    • Confucius – “The ceremonies of the celestial and terrestrial sacrifices are those by which men serve Shang Di.”
  • Border sacrifice
    • Performed by the emporer of China
    • Called Border Sacrifice because it usually took place on the southern border of the imperial city
    • Ji Tian – Ceremony of Sacrifice to Heaven
    • Not all emperors faithful in the three yearly sacrfices that were expected
    • Vol. 25 – History of Han Dynasty
    • Corruption from 259 B.C. – A.D. 1368
    • False gods abolished
  • Border sacrifice – ceremony
    • Emperor – three times a year
    • Spring – harvest
    • Summer – rain
    • Winter solstice – to sacrifice to Heaven
  • Preparation for ceremonies
    • 3 months before – unblemished sacrifice selected
    • Emperor put a proclamation
    • 5 days before – prince inspection of sacrifice
    • 3 days before – fast: no wine, mean, women, or entertainment
    • 2 days before – inspect writings, incense
    • 10:00 a.m. day before sacrifice: procession to the altar
      • Emperor and as many as 5000 people
  • Inside the complex
    • Emperor – Imperial vault
    • Kneel, kowtow 9 times
    • Inspect sacrifice, then return and bathe
  • Day of sacrifice
    • 4:15 a.m.
    • Emperor put on robes of “bo” silk.
    • Wash face and hands in basin.
    • 9 stage ceremony ending in burnt offering
  • Conclusion
    • God has strict requirements.
    • God wants a pure heart.
    • God requires a perfect sacrifice.
    • Jesus’ sacrifice ended sacrifice at the temple in Jerusalem or at any other Altar of Heaven.