By Ed Whitt

Benchley, August 23, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • Status of women in Old Testament times
      • Scriptural limitations
      • Roles filled by women
  • This lesson
    • How women were regarded in Old Testament times
    • What changed going into the 1st century
  • How women were considered in Old Testament times
    • Included in the covenant – Deuteronomy 29:9-12
    • Sources of wisdom – II Samuel 14:1-21
    • Wisdom personified as feminine – Proverbs 7:4; 8:1-6
    • Having great prudence – I Samuel 25:23-42
    • Wife is a very good find – Proverbs 19:L14; 18:22
  • How women considered – continued:
    • Life of a women on par with life of a man – Exodus 21:22-29
    • Books of Ruth, Esther, Song of Solomon
    • Book of Judith (uninspired)
      • Apocryphal book that tells the story of a rebel named Judith
  • Status of women in Old Testament
    • Marriages were arranged
      • Between father and prospective husband
      • Love was not a factor
      • Maintenance of tribal inheritance was
    • Emancipated widows free to seek their own
      • Ruth a good example
      • Wise woman of Tekoa presumably made choice
    • Beyond that, status was what she made of it
  • Cultural changes approaching 1st century
    • Encroachment of Hellenism throughout society
      • Embraced by some
      • Abhorred by others
      • Unavoidable by any
      • Numbness brought about by time
    • Gradual acceptance of cultural “norms”
      • Included many aspects of society
      • One change was women’s status
  • Effects of Hellenization on women
    • Neither seen nor heard
      • Harem system had roots in Hellenism
      • Woman’s place was in the home
      • Women not to be educated or to teach
      • Women to be “hidden” in public
    • Diminished legal standing
      • Could not testify in court
      • Disallowed from owning property

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 14, 2017

  • Review
    • Influence of the Persians
      • Exile to Alexander
      • Peace to minor persecution
    • Alexander’s conquest
      • Peaceful transition in Judea
      • Jewish influence on Alexander’s empire
    • Egyptian (Ptolemean) rule
      • Harsh to peaceful
      • Promotion of Jewish talents
      • Movements of Jews through empire
    • This lesson: rule of the Seleucids
      • Who was Antiochus IV?
      • Meddling with the priesthood
      • Ambition in Egypt
      • Roman intervention
      • Zadokite revolt
      • Antiochus’ revenge
      • Abomination of desolation
    • Seleucid takeover
      • Started in 204 BC
      • Peaceful at first
      • Changed under Antiochus Epiphanes
        • Serious persecution of the Jews
        • Defiled the temple
        • Forced Hellenization
        • Sets up the revolt
    • Antiochus Epiphanes (Antiochus IV)
      • “Epiphanes” translates “visible god”
      • Usurped the throne (178-164 BC)
        • Murdered his nephew, the rightful heir to the throne
    • Antiochus assumes throne
      • Begins his mission
      • Makes deals within the high priesthood
    • Co-opting the priesthood
      • Onias to Jason (174 BC)
      • Jason to Menelaus
      • The physical price
        • Some gold of the temple sold off to pay the bribe
    • Antiochus moves on Egypt
      • Takes all but Alexandria
      • Takes Cypress
      • Revisits two years later – 168 BC
        • Roman interference
        • Jason takes back Jerusalem
        • Antiochus returns to Damascus via Jerusalem
    • Antiochus accelerates Hellenization
      • All Jewish religious activity forbidden
        • Observances punishable by death
        • Menelaus reinstated as high priest
          • Wants the right to collect taxes. Was not concerned about Jewish laws or serving God.
          • Put to death those who broke the anti-religious laws he put in effect.
          • Sold people into slavery who could not pay taxes.
        • Desecrates temple
          • Constructed gymnasium (participants required to be nude, all people required to visit at least once)
          • Built statue to Zeus and sacrificed pigs
    • Nation divided
      • Hellenized Jews
        • Now in charge
        • Enforce new rules
      • Faithful Jews
        • Flee to the hills, caves
        • Carry on in the faith
    • Jerusalem in 168 BC
      • No more temple worship for the faithful
      • Newborn males no longer presented there
      • Passover not kept
      • Sabbath is disregarded
    • Jesus and John
      • What would calls to repent involve?
        • Daniel 11:28-32
    • Next lesson:
      • Men of action: the Maccabees
        • Revolt against Menelaus
        • Revolt against Seleucids
        • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
        • Purification and rededication of the temple
      • Enter Rome
      • Herodian Dynasty emerges