By David Watson

Benchley, January 17, 2018

  • Figures of speech, continued
    • When should we take a word or phrase figuratively? (continued)
      • When a literal understanding contradicts known facts or common sense
        • John 3:3
        • John 10:9 – Jesus obviously was not a physical door
        • Matthew 8:22; Luke 13:22
    • When should we NOT take a word or phrase figuratively?
      • When a literal understanding simply contradicts our beliefs
        • This is dishonest. We can’t say something is figurative simply because we don’t want to believe it.
    • Which is more accurate?
      • The Bible means what is says.
      • The Bible means what it means.
    • Simile
      • Psalms 1:3
      • I Peter 5:8
    • Metaphor
      • Matthew 7:15
      • Matthew 26:26, 28
      • Luke 13:32
      • John 2:19
      • John 3:3
      • John 6:35
      • John 8:12
      • John 10:7, 9, 11, 14
      • John 11:11
      • John 15:5
      • Ephesians 6:17
    • Anthropomorphisms
      • Genesis 8:21
      • Genesis 9:15
      • Exodus 31:18
      • Deuteronomy 11:12
      • Job 40:9
      • Psalms 130:2
      • Jeremiah 7:13
      • Hebrews 4:13
      • Genesis 6:5-7
    • Not-but (a Hebrew method of comparison, emphasizing one thing but not necessarily condemning the other)
      • Mark 2:17
      • Mark 9:37
      • John 6:27
      • I Corinthians 1:17
      • Philippians 2:4
      • I Timothy 1:9
      • I Timothy 2:12
      • II Timothy 1:9
      • Titus 3:5
      • James 5:12
      • I Peter 3:3-4
      • I John 3:18
    • Hyperbole
      • Deuteronomy 1:28
      • Mark 10:25
      • John 3:26
      • John 4:29
    • Parable
      • Matthew 13:3-8
      • Luke 15:3-7
      • Luke 15:8-10
      • Luke 15:11-32
    • Metonymy (refers to something indirectly by using a related noun)
      • Genesis 6:11
      • Matthew 3:5-6
      • Matthew 10:34
      • John 1:29
      • John 3:16
      • Romans 5:9
      • I Corinthians 7:1
      • I Corinthians 11:26
      • Galatians 6:12

By David Watson

Benchley, January 10, 2018

  • Context and harmony, continued:
    • Hebrews 13:4 – “Marriage is a holy institution. Any marriage is acceptable to God.”
      • Context – Hebrews 13:1-7 – The context itself forbids fornication and adultery.
      • Harmony – Matthew 19:5-9; Luke 16:18
      • Conclusion – It is possible for a marriage to not be approved by God. Adultery in particular is repeatedly denounced as sin. Marriage is always described as one man and one woman.
  • Figures of speech
    • What Jesus said (John 2:19-21) vs. what they heard (Mark 14:58; 15:29-30)
    • Exodus 5:22-23
    • Matthew 10:26 – “Take eat. This is my body.” Jesus was standing there with them, so it could not have been His actual body. Also, drinking blood was prohibited by the Law of Moses, so Jesus would have been encouraging them to break the law.
    • Dangers of figurative language
      • Taking figurative language literally.
      • Taking literal language figuratively.
    • Matthew 16:5-12
    • John 16:25
    • Psalms 23:4 – hyperbole
    • Mark 10:25
    • Understand a passage literally unless there is a good reason not to.
    • II Peter 2:22
    • When should we take a word or phrase figuratively?
      • When it is said to be figurative
        • Galatians 4:24
        • John 2:18-22
        • Revelation 1:20; 5:8
        • Acts 2:16-21; Matthew 4:12-17 – Old Testament figurative prophecy is often explained in the New Testament.
      • When a literal understanding contradicts another passage
        • Remember to harmonize!
        • Mark 1:5; Luke 7:29-30 – The lawyers and Pharisees had not been baptized by John, so we know that “all” in Mark 1:5 didn’t literally mean all, but “a lot” or “most.”
        • Luke 14:26; Ephesians 5:25; Matthew 5:44
      • When it matches a pattern of figurative language in other passages.
        • I Peter 3:33 – “not-but” passage
        • Genesis 17:1 – “walk” is figurative
        • Isaiah 9:2 – “light” is figurative

Figures of Speech, Part 4

Posted by mark under Classes

Figures of Speech, Part 2

Posted by mark under Classes

By David Watson

Benchley, May 16, 2012

 

  • We should take a passage to be figurative when:
    • A literal understanding contradicts another passage.
    • It is said to be figurative.
    • A literal understanding contradicts known facts/common sense.
  • We should not take a passage to be figurative just because it contradicts our beliefs.
  • Figures of speech
    • Types:
      • Pleonasm (redundancy): “When more words are used than the grammar requires” (Bullinger). Example: That is a true fact.
      • Hyperbole (exaggeration): “When more is said than is literally meant” (Bullinger). Example: Everybody knows that.
      • Metonymy (change of noun): “The change of one noun for another related noun” (Bullinger). Example: Let’s get a head count. Example: He couldn’t give up the bottle. Head for ‘person,’ bottle for ‘alcohol.’
      • Synecdoche (transfer): “The exchange of one idea for another associated idea” (Bullinger). “We speak of the whole by a part, or a part by using a term denoting the whole” (Dungan). Example: He’s running from the law. The word law (the whole) refers to the cop chasing him (the part).
      • Simile (resemblance): “A declaration that one thing resembles another” (Bullinger). Example: He was hot as a firecracker.
      • Metaphor (representation): “A declaration that one thing is (or represents) another” (Bullinger). Example: During the time of the judges, Israel was on a rollercoaster.
      • Parabola (parable, continued simile): “Comparison by continued resemblance” (Bullinger).
      • Not-But: “The writers of the New Testament have adopted the Hebrew manner of comparison” (MacKnight).
    • Examples
  • The Holy Spirit used figures of speech to explain heavenly things using earthly concepts. In some cases, figures of speech were used to obscure a message from those it was not intended for. In other cases, figures of speech were used to emphasize particular concepts.

Figures of Speech, Part 1

Posted by mark under Classes

By David Watson

Benchley, May 9, 2012

 

  • John 16:25 – Jesus plainly states that He has been using figurative language.
  • John 11:11-14 – It is easy to miss figures of speech as the disciples did.