By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 21, 2017

  • Last lesson: rule of the Seleucids
    • Who was Antiochus IV?
    • Meddling with the priesthood
    • Ambition in Egypt
    • Roman intervention
    • Zadokite revolt – Ezekiel 44:15; 40:46; 43:19; 48:19
    • Antiochus’ revenge
    • Abomination of desolation
  • This lesson
    • Men of action: the Maccabees
    • Revolt against Menelaus
    • Revolt against Seleucids
    • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
    • Purification and rededication of the temple
    • Enter Rome
    • Herodian Dynasty emerges
  • Taking action: Mattathias
    • Daniel 11:28
    • Priestly descent
    • “New order” spreads to villages
    • Ordered by Seleucid officer to sacrifice to Jupiter
    • By actions, started a revolt
    • Became known as Maccabees – “Hammer”
  • Judas begins guerilla campaign
    • Light, maneuverable
    • Use of terrain to advantage
  • Antiochus fails to take seriously
    • Sends “practice” generals to get experience
    • Users better generals on major campaigns
  • Maccabees regain Jerusalem 165 BC
  • Purified and rededicated temple
    • Not enough kosher oil for menorah
      • Leviticus 24:1
    • Single day’s vial said to have lasted nine days
  • Hasmonean woes not over
    • Antiochus IV dies in Parthia in 164 BC
    • Demetrius (rightful heir) hostage in Rome
    • Antiochus V Eupator takes throne at age 9
  • Maccabeans allow Menelaus to stay
    • Continues as high priest
    • Runs temple, Judea, and collects taxes for Syria
  • Lysias rules Syria for Antiochus V
    • Returns to Jerusalem in 163 BC
    • Executes Menelaus
    • Appoints Alcimus as high priest
    • Learns of trouble in Antioch
  • Lysias makes hasty treaty
    • Grants status under Antiochus III
    • Immediately violates terms of treaty
  • Judas Maccabees consolidates gains
    • Institutes internal reforms
    • Makes alliance with Rome
    • Tried to remove Alcimus from high priesthood
  • Lysias returns
    • Judah and John killed in battles in 160 BC
    • Jonathon takes command of Hasmoneans
    • Alcimus still high priest
  • Demetrius escapes Rome
    • Accepted in Antioch as true king
    • Has Antiochus V and Lysias executed
    • Does not replace Alcimus when he dies in 159
  • New general in town
    • Bacchides replaces Lysias
    • Remembers previous three generals
    • Makes treaty with Jonathon
  • Jonathon appointed high priest – 153 BC
  • Enter Alexander Balas
    • Claimed to be heir to the throne
    • Jonathon allied with him
    • Alexander Balas wins
  • Hasmonean expansion
    • Edom
    • Samaria
    • Moab
    • Galilee
  • Trouble in Antioch
    • Battle for throne
    • Impact on Judea

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, June 14, 2017

  • Review
    • Influence of the Persians
      • Exile to Alexander
      • Peace to minor persecution
    • Alexander’s conquest
      • Peaceful transition in Judea
      • Jewish influence on Alexander’s empire
    • Egyptian (Ptolemean) rule
      • Harsh to peaceful
      • Promotion of Jewish talents
      • Movements of Jews through empire
    • This lesson: rule of the Seleucids
      • Who was Antiochus IV?
      • Meddling with the priesthood
      • Ambition in Egypt
      • Roman intervention
      • Zadokite revolt
      • Antiochus’ revenge
      • Abomination of desolation
    • Seleucid takeover
      • Started in 204 BC
      • Peaceful at first
      • Changed under Antiochus Epiphanes
        • Serious persecution of the Jews
        • Defiled the temple
        • Forced Hellenization
        • Sets up the revolt
    • Antiochus Epiphanes (Antiochus IV)
      • “Epiphanes” translates “visible god”
      • Usurped the throne (178-164 BC)
        • Murdered his nephew, the rightful heir to the throne
    • Antiochus assumes throne
      • Begins his mission
      • Makes deals within the high priesthood
    • Co-opting the priesthood
      • Onias to Jason (174 BC)
      • Jason to Menelaus
      • The physical price
        • Some gold of the temple sold off to pay the bribe
    • Antiochus moves on Egypt
      • Takes all but Alexandria
      • Takes Cypress
      • Revisits two years later – 168 BC
        • Roman interference
        • Jason takes back Jerusalem
        • Antiochus returns to Damascus via Jerusalem
    • Antiochus accelerates Hellenization
      • All Jewish religious activity forbidden
        • Observances punishable by death
        • Menelaus reinstated as high priest
          • Wants the right to collect taxes. Was not concerned about Jewish laws or serving God.
          • Put to death those who broke the anti-religious laws he put in effect.
          • Sold people into slavery who could not pay taxes.
        • Desecrates temple
          • Constructed gymnasium (participants required to be nude, all people required to visit at least once)
          • Built statue to Zeus and sacrificed pigs
    • Nation divided
      • Hellenized Jews
        • Now in charge
        • Enforce new rules
      • Faithful Jews
        • Flee to the hills, caves
        • Carry on in the faith
    • Jerusalem in 168 BC
      • No more temple worship for the faithful
      • Newborn males no longer presented there
      • Passover not kept
      • Sabbath is disregarded
    • Jesus and John
      • What would calls to repent involve?
        • Daniel 11:28-32
    • Next lesson:
      • Men of action: the Maccabees
        • Revolt against Menelaus
        • Revolt against Seleucids
        • Establishment of Hasmonean Dynasty
        • Purification and rededication of the temple
      • Enter Rome
      • Herodian Dynasty emerges