Archive for the ‘Classes’ Category

Psalms, Part 4

Posted by mark under Classes

By Jesse Jenkins

Benchley, August 13, 2017

  • Psalms 19-22
  • Psalms 19:12-13 – Compare Leviticus 16:21-22, 30, 34 and Hebrews 5:1-3. Our hidden faults are sins we have committed unknowingly. Under the Old Covenant, the scapegoat took on all the sins of the congregation – not just those they were aware of.
  • Psalms 21 – The king rejoices in God’s salvation.
  • Psalms 22 – We know this is a Messianic psalm because it is quoted in the New Testament and applied to Jesus.
  • Psalms 22:1
    • John 8:28-29 – God has never forsaken someone for doing that which pleased Him.
    • John 16:31-32
    • When Jesus quoted this psalm on the cross, He was bringing the entire contents of the psalm to the crowd’s attention.
    • Luke 23:48
    • Jesus did not become a sinner on the cross – He became a scapegoat to carry our sins away.
    • I Peter 1:19

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, August 9, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • More aspects of Herod’s rule
    • The temple renovations by Herod
    • How Jerusalem of Herod’s day appeared
  • This lesson
    • Finish Lesson 8!
    • Role of women in 1st century Jewish society
  • Absence from history of killing infants
    • Josephus was not a Christian
    • He was a Pharisee
    • No interest in promoting Jesus as the Messiah
    • What about the Testimonium Flavianum?
    • Was it consistent with Herod’s behavior?
  • How did Jerusalem appear in 1st century?
    • Why might it matter?
    • What is to gain?
  • What do we have to work with?
    • Archaeological finds
    • Verbal descriptions from the time
    • Resultant cartographers’ and artists’ depictions
    • Matthew 23:29-39
    • Matthew 24:1-3
    • Luke 19:36-44
    • II Kings 20:20 – Hezekiah’s tunnel

Psalms, Part 3

Posted by mark under Classes

By Jesse Jenkins

Benchley, August 6, 2017

  • Psalms 14-19
  • Psalms 14:1 – Compare Psalms 53.
  • Psalms 16:10-11 – This indicates there would be a resurrection. Compare Acts 2:25-31. Peter applies this to Christ.
  • Psalms 17 – A prayer of David for God’s help.
  • Psalms 19:1 – See Romans 1:20.
  • Psalms 19:12-13 – Presumptuous sins are those that are committed knowingly. Secret sins are those that are committed unknowingly. These two verses are a contrast. Compare the contrast that is made in Acts 17:30.

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, August 2, 2017

  • Last lesson:
    • Adventures of Aristobulus II
    • Herodian Dynasty solidifies
    • The last Hasmonean
    • The reign of Herod the Great, Part 1
  • This lesson:
    • More aspects of Herod’s rule
    • The temple renovations by Herod
    • How Jerusalem of Herod’s day appeared
  • Herod the opportunist
    • Struggle between Marc Antony and Octavius
      • Sides with the loser
      • Might have lost his head
    • Built a city to honor Augustus Caesar
      • Caesarea Maritima – port city where there was no port
      • Extensive construction of deep water port
      • City with temple to all the Roman gods
      • Became regional Roman capital
  • Political moves
    • Made attempts to stay in the Jews’ favor
      • Married Mariamne (II)
        • Daughter of the son of a Zadokite priest
        • Appointed new father in law as high priest
      • Temporary reinstatement of Zadokite priesthood
      • Renovated the temple
    • Heavy-handedness betrayed efforts
      • Secret police
      • Political executions
      • Personal conduct
      • Placation of the Hellenists and Romans
  • Slaughter of innocents
    • Term used to denote killing of infants
      • Matthew 2:1-12
      • Herod had already shows to be paranoid of competition
      • Event not of political importance to Rome
    • Possibly unnoticed by much of Judea
    • Josephus either ignorant or disregarded
      • Pharisee
      • Wrote little outside palace and empire affairs
  • Herod dies shortly after birth of Jesus
    • Matthew 2:13-15 (Hosea 11:1)
    • In Jericho
    • Extremely painful disease
      • Attempted suicide
      • Died a few days later
    • Buried in Herodium
  • Some effects of Herod’s rule
    • Imposed Roman rule
    • Afforded exceptional infrastructure
    • Embittered Jews against him
    • Fomented revolt
  • Coming weeks
    • Role of women in Jewish society
    • Social strata of Jerusalem
    • Religious sects
    • Purification
    • Laws of the Sabbath
  • Homework!
    • Genesis 22:15-19
    • Judges 13
    • I Samuel 1:1-20
    • Psalms 105:24
    • Jeremiah 23:3
    • Ezekiel 36:8-14

Psalms, Part 2

Posted by mark under Classes

By Jesse Jenkins

Benchley, July 30, 2017

  • Psalms 8-13
  • Psalms 8:4-5 – Man is God’s greatest creation.
    • Hebrews 2:6-9 – Quotes this passage and applies it to Jesus.
  • Psalm 13 – When the going gets tough, let us turn to God and pray!

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 26, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • Aristobulus’ short rule
    • Profane rule of Jannaeus
    • Alexandra Salome’s accomplishments
    • Rivalry of brothers
    • Idumean intrigue
    • First of the Herodians
  • This lesson
    • Adventures of Aristobulus II
    • Herodian Dynasty solidifies
    • The last Hasmonean
    • The reign of Herod the Great, Part 1
  • Antipater is governor
    • Court Julius Caesar’s favor
    • Appointed procurator of Judea
  • Judean semi-autonomy
  • Antipater appoints sons to power
    • Phasael becomes governor of Jerusalem
    • Herod appointed governor of Galilee
  • Aristobulus unchained
    • Escapes Rome in 57 B.C.
    • Another rebellion against Rome
  • Chased into Syria by Romans
    • Trapped in Machaerus
    • Prisoner of Rome – again
  • “Kindness” of Julius Caesar
  • Pompey’s intervention
  • Malice Malichus
    • Taxed by Cassius
    • Saved by Antipater
    • Completes his mission anyway in 43 B.C.
  • Herod and brother are Tetrarchs
    • Herod is over Galilee
    • Phasael is over Judea
    • War of 40 B.C.
  • War of 40 B.C.
    • Antigonus revolts
      • Herod and Phasael defend Jerusalem
      • Antigonus allies with Parthia
      • Invades eastern portion of the region
      • Phasael and Hyranus taken prisoner
      • Phasael dies and Hyrcanus banished
        • Antigonus permanently removes Hyrcanus II from high priesthood by having his servants bite off his ears. (c.f. Leviticus 21:17-24)
      • Herod escapes to Rome
    • Antigonus now king and high priest
  • Herod now hero in Rome
    • Paraded by Caesar before the senate
    • Given title
    • Sent home with an army
  • Herod prevails against Antigonus
    • Sends Antigonus to Marc Anthony
    • Disposes of him
  • Herod solidifies position
    • Marries granddaughter of John Hyrcanus II
    • Appoints Aristobulus III as high priest in 36 B.C.
    • Brings John Hyrcanus II home from exile
    • Aristobulus retires a year later, age 18
    • Hyrcanus “retires” at age 80 in 30 B.C.
  • End of the Hasmonean “problem”
    • Herod still doesn’t feel secure
      • Mariamne I accused and tried
      • Her mother testifies against her
      • Mariamne found guilty, executed
      • Mother self-declares as queen, is executed
    • Two more “problems”
      • Sons Alexander and Aristobulus accused
      • Turned over to Octavius for execution
  • No Hasmoneans are left alive
  • Herod in power many years
    • Reigned 33 years (not in power all of them)
    • Lived 70 years
  • Both praised and reviled
    • Much elaborate infrastructure
      • Multiple palaces
      • Aqueducts, ports, roads, etc.
      • Major temple renovation
    • Ruthless, even to own family
  • Coming weeks
    • More of the Herodian Dynasty
    • Role of women in Jewish society
    • Social strata of Jerusalem
    • Religious sects
    • Purification
    • Laws of the Sabbath

Psalms, Part 1

Posted by mark under Classes

By Jesse Jenkins

Benchley, July 23, 2017

  • Psalms 1-7
  • Psalms 1:1 – God has a law and He wants us to walk in it!
  • Psalms 1:6 – A godly man is one who respects God and His word. “Godly” is not the same as “god-like.”
  • Psalms 2:1-5, 8-10 – The rulers on earth generally rage against God.
  • Psalms 4:1 – We can have gladness even in times of persecution because we live in spiritual peace and safety.
  • Psalms 5:3 – This is the best and only right way to start our day!
  • Psalms 6:1 – Don’t let the hardships of life turn you against God.

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 19, 2017

  • Last lesson
    • Galilee
    • Samaritans
    • Temples
      • Gerizim
      • Elephantine
      • Heliopolis
    • End of rule for John Hyrcanus
    • Treacheries of Aristobulus
  • This lesson
    • Results of Aristobulus’ rule
    • Profane rule of Jannaeus
    • Last of the Hasmoneans
    • First of the Herodians
  • John Hyrcanus designates wife as heir
    • As ruler, not as priest
    • He dies in 104 BC
    • Son (Aristobulus) imprisons her and 3 brothers
  • Aristobulus now rules
    • Declares himself as both priest and king
    • Conquers the rest of Galilee and Iturea
    • Dies of illness after one year
  • Wife of Aristobulus nicer than husband
  • Jannaeus now high priest and king
    • Marries brother’s widow, Alexandra
      • Deuteronomy 25:5
      • Matthew 22:23-33
    • Spent younger years in Galilee
    • Vigorous military campaigns
      • Gained much territory
      • Lost same within several years
    • Persecuted Pharisees
    • Mocked the feasts
  • Civil war
    • Pharisees vs Sadducees, Hasmoneans
    • 50,000 killed in six years
    • Pharisees appeal to Seleucids for help
      • Eventually dump foreign tyrants for native tyrant
      • Jannaeus dies in 76 BC
      • Queen Salome Alexandra takes throne
  • Queen Alexandra
    • Establishes Sanhedrin
      • Rabbinical council
      • Religious legislative powers
      • Judicial authority
    • Strengthens Judean army
    • Appoints son, John Hyrcanus II, as high priest
    • She dies in 67 BC
    • Son takes throne
  • John Hyrcanus II takes the throne
    • Aristobulus II goes to war
      • “Fight” at Jericho
      • Siege at Jerusalem
      • Hyrcanus surrenders with terms
    • Antipater the Idumean
      • Well-heeled noble from Idumea
      • Skilled politician and diplomat
    • Veteran governor of Idumea under Hasmoneans
    • Sees Hyrcanus as weak and pliable
  • Plots to replace Aristobulus
    • Places Hyrcanus with Nabateans
    • Makes promises for support
  • Siege of Jerusalem
    • Nabateans take 50,000 troops
    • They commit two serious offenses
  • Race for Roman support
    • General Scaurus is completing conquest in Syria
    • Both brothers try to bribe him
    • Initial call is in favor of Aristobulus
  • Pompey comes to town
    • More bribes
    • Pompey ignores bribes
    • Considers annexation of Judea instead
  • Caesar and Pompey contend for rule
    • Caesar wins, Antipater supports him
    • Antipater appointed governor of Judea
    • Hyrcanus appointed high priest, tetrarch
  • Coming weeks
    • Herodian Dynasty
    • Role of women in Jewish society
    • Social strata of Jerusalem
    • Religious sects
    • Purification
    • Laws of the Sabbath

Exodus, Part 15

Posted by mark under Classes

By David Watson

Benchley, July 16, 2017

  • The legacy of Exodus
    • Deliverance/freedom
      • God is able to deliver His people from slavery.
      • Leviticus 26:13; Judges 6:7-10; Leviticus 11:45; Isaiah 48:20-21; Jeremiah 16:14-15; Psalms 77:20
      • John 8:31-34 – Jesus delivers us from slavery to sin, just as God delivered the Israelites from physical slavery.
    • Provisions
      • God provides for the needs of His people.
      • Psalms 78:24-25; John 6:31-35
      • Nor reading your Bible is like failing to pick up manna from Heaven!
    • Lack of faith
      • Despite God’s blessings, His people tend to turn their backs on Him.
      • I Samuel 10:17-19
      • Psalm 78:42-53; 81:10-16; I Corinthians 10:1-7
      • Hebrews 10:28-29
    • Law
      • God’s law is a blessing for His people.
      • Romans 3:1-2
      • Jeremiah 31:31-34
    • Power and glory of God
      • God’s mighty hand in Egypt displayed His power and made a name for Himself.
      • I Samuel 6:6; Psalms 105:26-45; Isaiah 63:12; Romans 9:17
    • Tabernacle
      • The tabernacle Moses built is but a shadow of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched.
      • Hebrews 8:1-6; 9:1-12
      • Acts 7:35-44

By Ed Whitt

Benchley, July 12, 2017

  • Last lesson:
    • Simon
    • John Hyrcanus
    • Expansion of Judea
    • Doctrine of proselytizing
  • Effects of expansion
    • Observance of law vs. proselytizing
    • Hellenized cities vs. Easternized
    • Idumea
      • Mass forced conversion
      • Defections
      • Conversion not necessarily assimilation
    • Galilee
      • Hick town north of Samaria
      • Barriers to interaction
  • Who were the Samaritans?
    • Occupiers of northern kingdom of Israel
      • Other nations that had been deported
      • Deported yet again – to Samaria ~ 700 BC
    • Perplexed at problems
      • Attacked by wild animals
      • Wanted to appease “god of this land”
  • The fix
    • Assyrian king sends a priest
      • Good choice?
      • Did he teach them well?
    • Initial results
      • “Feared God”
      • Kept high places
      • Jehovah treated as just another god
  • Samaria often refuge for renegades
    • Priest named Manasseh (409 BC – Nehemiah 13:28)
    • Builds temple
  • Samaritans begin abandoning other gods
  • Doctor scripture to reflect their “reality”
  • Progress of Samaritan “Jewishness”
  • Destruction of temple at Mt. Gerizim
  • Continued use of Mt. Gerizim
  • Speaking of temples
    • Temple at Elephantine
    • Temple at Heliopolis
  • Justification
    • Isaiah 19:19
    • Does this work?
    • Highlights problems of interpretation
  • What happened to them?
  • John Hyrcanus designates wife as heir
    • As ruler, not as priest
    • He dies in 104, son imprisons her
  • Aristobulus now rules
    • Declares himself as both priest and king
    • Conquers the rest of Galilee and Iturea
    • Imprisons his three brothers
    • Dies of illness after one year
  • Wife of Aristobulus nicer than husband
  • Jannaeus now high priest and king
    • Marries brother’s widow, Alexandra
    • Spent younger years in Galilee
    • Vigorous military campaigns
      • Gained much territory
      • Lost same within several years
    • Persecuted Pharisees
    • Mocked the feasts
  • Civil war
    • Pharisees vs. Sadducees, Hasmoneans
    • 50,000 killed in six years
    • Pharisees appeal to Seleucids for help
      • Jannaeus dies in 76 BC
      • Queen Salome Alexandra takes throne
      • She sides with Pharisees
      • Pharisees dump foreign tyrants for native tyrant
  • Queen Alexandra
    • Establishes Sanhedrin
      • Rabbinical council
      • Religious legislative powers
      • Judicial authority
    • Strengthens Judean army
    • Appoints son, John Hurcanus II, as high priest
    • She dies in 67 BC
    • Son takes throne
  • Coming weeks
    • Fall of Hasmonean Dynasty
    • Roman intrigue, dominance
    • Beginning of the Herodian Dynasty
    • The role of women in Jewish society
    • The social strata of Jerusalem
    • Unclean, unwhole
    • The Sabbath and its laws
  • Homework!
    • Read:
      • Matthew 2:1-22
      • Mark 3:6
      • Luke 3:1, 19-20; 8:1-2; 9:1-9; 13:31-32; 23:6-12
      • Mark 6:7-29; 8:15; 12:13
      • Acts 12:1-23